ARSIP BLOG

Penjelasan Dan Pengertian Direct And Indirect Speech

Posted by Bhernadin Erryco on Senin, 05 November 2012


Penjelasan Direct dan Indirect Speech (Reported Speech) - Direct dan Indirect Speech merupakan materi grammar bahasa Inggris yang banyak diajarkan di jenjang SMP dan SMA. Direct dan Indirect Speech atau yang biasa disebut Reported Speech ini menjadi langganan bentuk soal yang sering keluar di UN baik untuk SMP dan SMA.


Atas dasar begitu pentingnya materi Direct dan Indirect Speech ini, maka pada kesempatan kali ini penulis memberikan penjelasan mengenai Direct dan Inderct tersebut dengan lengkap kepada pengunjung sekalian. Semoga bermanfaat.

Direct dan Indirect Speech

Ketika kita merubah kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung, ada beberapa hal yang mengalami perubahan diantaranya perubahan struktur kalimat, tensis, pronoun (kata ganti orang), keterangan waktu dan tempat (Adverbs of time and place).

Sebelum melangkah jauh ke sub-pembahasan tersebut di atas, alangkah baiknya ada juga mengerti tentang apa yang dimaksud
Reporting Speech dan Reported Speech.

Reporting Speech adalah bagian dalam kalimat direct speech yang di tandai oleh tanda petik (") dan di akhiri oleh tanda petik (").

  • He said, "I have a present for you in my bag."
  • He asked me, "why do you come late."
Sedangkan Reported Speech adalah baigan awal dari kalimat direct speech.
  • He said, "I have a present for you in my bag."
  • He asked me, "why do you come late."
Untuk itu, pada artikel ini penulis sengaja membagi beberpa sub-penjelasan mengenai direct dan indirect speech berdasakan perubahan-perbuahan di atas.





1. Perubahan Stuktur kalimat

Jika kita lihat pada kalimat direct speech, terdapat ciri-ciri yang identik yaitu terdapat tanda petik ("). Tada petik tersebut merupakan cara yang sering digunakan untuk membedakan mana yang direct atau yang indirect.

Ketika klimat direct speech tersebut dirubah menjadi kalimat indirect speech, tanda petik tersebut pun dihilangkan atau digantikan dengan kata "that" atau "to" (untuk kalimat perintah). Misalnya:

No Direct Speech Indirect Speech
01 He said, "I have a present for you in my bag." He said that he had a present for me in his bag.
02 He asked me, "why do you come late." He asked me why I came late.
03 He orderd me, "don't bring a bag." He ordered me to didn't bring a bag.

Perubahan struktur kalimat juga terjadi jika pada direct speech menggunakan kalimat tanya, maka akan dirubah menjadi kalimat afirmatif (berita).

Untuk kalimat direct speech yang menggunakan kalimat tanya "yes-no question" maka akan dirubah menjadi if/whether. Contohnya:

No Direct Speech Indirect Speech
01 They asked me, "Do you want to join us to play football?" They asked me if/whether I want to join them to play football.
02 He asked me, "Does she want to mary me?" He asked me if/whether she wants to mary her.
Untuk kalimat direct speech yang menggunakan 5W1H question (Why, Who, What, When, WHere, How), maka akan dirubah menjadi kalimat afirmatif dengan cara sebagai berikut:

No Direct Speech Indirect Speech
01 He asked me, "why do you come late?" He asked me why you came late.
02 He asked me, "what does she eat?" He asked me what she ate.
03 He asked me, "when did you come?" He asked me when I came.
04 He asked me, "who are you?" He asked me who I was.
05 He asked me, "who is she?" He asked me who she was.

2. Perubahan Tensis (Tenses)

Seperti yang dijelaskan dimuka, perbuahan dari direct ke indirect juga mempengaruhi tensis yang digunakan. Kebanyakan siswa sulit memahami perubahan yang satu ini. Untuk itu, penulis sengaja membuatkan tabel perubahan tensis agar mudah dimengerti.

Di bawah ini adalah tabel Perubahan Tenses dari direct speech ke indirect speech.

No Direct Speech Indirect Speech
01 Simple Present Simple Past
02 Present Continuous Past Continuous
03 Present Future Past Future
04 Present Perfect Past Perfect
05 Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous
06 Simple Past Past Perfect
07 Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous


Atau bisa lebih dipermudah dengan tabel berikut di bawah ini, yaitu:

No Direct Speech Indirect Speech
01 V1 (eat) V2 (ate)
02 V2 (ate) Had + V3 (had eaten)
03 Am/is/are Was/were
04 Do/does Did
05 Do/does not Did not
06 Did not Had not + V3
07 Was/were Had been
08 Am/is/are + V-ing Was/were + V-ing
09 Was/were +V-ing Had been + V-ing
10 Has/have + V3 Had + V3
11 Will/shall/can/may/must Would/should/could/might/had to
12 Could/might/should/would + V1/be Could/might/should/would + have+ V3/been


3. Perubahan Pronoun

Perubahan pronoun dan possessive tergantung kepada sabjek dan objek yang dipakai di direct speech (kalimat langsung) yang tentunya mempengaruhi perubahan pronoun pada indirect speech (kalimat tidak langsung).


  • Kata ganti orang pertama (I dan We) pada reporting speech (lihat penjelasan di awal) berubah sesuai subjek yang ada di reproted speech.
  • No Direct Speech Indirect Speech
    01 He said, ‘I am busy.’ He said that he was busy.
    02 She said, ‘I am unwell.’ She said that she was unwell.
    03 I said, ‘I will be late.’ I said that I would be late.
    04 They said, ‘We will not permit this.’ They said that they would not permit that.
    05 We said, ‘We need to buy some clothes.’ We said that we needed to buy some clothes.


  • Kata ganti orang kedua (You) di reporting speech pada direct speech berubah sesuai objek pada reported speech.
  • No Direct Speech Indirect Speech
    01 He said to me, ‘You have to come with me.’ He told me that I had to go with him.
    02 She said to me, ‘You can go.’ She told me that I could go.
    03 She said to him, ‘You can go.’ She told him that he could go.
  • Kata ganti orang ketiga (He, she, it dan they) pada direct speech tidak mengalami perubahan ketika dirubah ke indirect speech.
  • No Direct Speech Indirect Speech
    01 He said, ‘She is a good girl.’ He said that she was a good girl.
    02 She said, ‘They have invited us.’ She said that they had invited them.
    03 They said, ‘He does not have the necessary qualifications.’ They said that he did not have the necessary qualifications.
4. Perubahan Keterangan waktu dan tempat (Adverbs of time and place)

Tidak cuma itu, dalam perubahan dari direct speech ke indirect speech juga mempengaruhi adverbs khusunya adverb of time (keterangan waktu) dan adverb of place (keterangan tempat). Untuk itu anda wajib memahami tabel di bawah ini.


No Direct Speech Indirect Speech
01 Now Then
02 To day That day
03 Tomorrow The next day
The day after
The following day
A day later
04 Next ... The ... after
The following ...
05 Last ... The ... before
The Previous ...
06 ... ago ... before
... earlier
07 Yesterday The day before
The previous day
The preceeding day
08 The day before yesterday Two day before
09 Here There
10 This That
11 These Those


Di bawah ini adalah contoh-contoh direct dan indirect speech untuk menambah pemahaman mengenai penjelasan di atas.


Direct Speech Indirect Speech
(+) He said, “I have a present for you in my bag. here He said that he had a present for me in his bag there.
(-)

He said, “I do not have a present for you in my bag”


He said that he did not have a present for me in his bag.
(?)

He asked, “Do I have a present for you in my bag?”


He asked me if/whether he had a present for me in his bag.
(?)

He asked me, “ Why do I have to have a present for you in my bag?

 He asked me why he had to have a present for me in his bag.
(!)
He ordered/commanded me, “Bring my bag here now!”
He ordered/commanded me to bring his bag there then.
(!) He ordered me, “Don’t bring your bag here!”
He ordered me not to bring my bag there.

Sumber

{ 3 comments... read them below or add one }

Yessi Mei Sandi mengatakan... Reply Comment

Great !X_X

Anonim mengatakan... Reply Comment

Tolong d perhatikn kmbali perubahan2 pada tensesnya......

rido akmal mengatakan... Reply Comment

great :)

:) :( ;) :D ;;-) :-/ :x :P :-* =(( :-O X( :7 B-) :-S #:-S 7:) :(( :)) :| /:) =)) O:-) :-B =; :-c :)] ~X( :-h :-t 8-7 I-) 8-| L-) :-a :-$ [-( :O) 8-} 2:-P (:| =P~ :-? #-o =D7 :-SS @-) :^o :-w 7:P 2):) X_X :!! \m/ :-q :-bd ^#(^ :ar!

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